California's Outdoor Garden Fountain Study and Results
Berkley, CA citizens voted for a sugar-sweetened beverages tax in February 2014, the earliest of its kind in the United States. By taxing sugary drinks, the city hopes to inspire a lot more people to choose healthier choices, such as water. Research was conducted to find out the status of local drinking water fountains and whether people from other racial or financial backgrounds had reduced availability to them. The study utilized a GPS app to collect data on current water fountains in the city. The US Census Community Study database was used to compile information pertaining to race and economic status in these segments. Comparisons were made amongst the location and demographic data, uncovering whether class differences affected availability to clean, working water fountains. The research was able to determine the demographics of areas with water fountains, also observing whether the state of the fountains was better or inferior in lower class neighborhoods. Most of the water fountains were dirty or blocked, despite the fact that the majority of fountains worked.
Rome’s First Water Transport Solutions
With the manufacturing of the 1st raised aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, folks who lived on the city’s hills no longer had to be dependent entirely on naturally-occurring spring water for their demands. When aqueducts or springs weren’t available, people dwelling at raised elevations turned to water removed from underground or rainwater, which was made possible by wells and cisterns. From the early sixteenth century, water was routed to Pincian Hill through the underground channel of Acqua Vergine. The aqueduct’s channel was made accessible by pozzi, or manholes, that were situated along its length when it was first built. Whilst these manholes were provided to make it simpler and easier to preserve the aqueduct, it was also possible to use containers to pull water from the channel, which was practiced by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he obtained the property in 1543 to his death in 1552. He didn’t get sufficient water from the cistern that he had built on his residential property to obtain rainwater. That is when he made the decision to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran directly below his residential property.
The Garden Water Fountains
As originally conceived, fountains were designed to be practical, directing water from streams or aqueducts to the citizens of cities and settlements, where the water could be utilized for cooking food, cleaning, and drinking. In the days before electricity, the spray of fountains was driven by gravity exclusively, often using an aqueduct or water supply located far away in the nearby hills. Fountains spanning history have been created as monuments, impressing hometown citizens and tourists alike. The common fountains of today bear little resemblance to the first water fountains. Simple stone basins created from nearby material were the first fountains, used for spiritual functions and drinking water. Rock basins are believed to have been first made use of around 2,000 BC. The spraying of water appearing from small spouts was pushed by gravity, the sole power source builders had in those days. These ancient fountains were built to be functional, frequently situated along reservoirs, streams and waterways to furnish drinking water. The people of Rome began constructing ornate fountains in 6 BC, most of which were metallic or natural stone masks of creatures and mythological heroes. Water for the open fountains of Rome was brought to the city via a elaborate system of water aqueducts.
"Old School" Water Fountain Designers
Multi-talented individuals, fountain designers from the 16th to the late 18th century frequently served as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and cultivated scholars all in one. During the Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci exemplified the creator as a creative genius, creator and scientific expert. The forces of nature led him to examine the properties and motion of water, and due to his fascination, he methodically recorded his experiences in his now renowned notebooks. Early Italian water fountain engineers converted private villa configurations into ingenious water displays complete of emblematic meaning and natural charm by combining creativity with hydraulic and horticultural expertise. Known for his incredible skill in archeology, design and garden creations, Pirro Ligorio, the humanist, provided the vision behind the wonders in Tivoli. Masterminding the phenomenal water marbles, water features and water antics for the various estates in the vicinity of Florence, other water feature creators were well versed in humanist subjects as well as ancient scientific texts.
The Source of Modern Day Garden Fountains
Hundreds of ancient Greek documents were translated into Latin under the auspices of the scholarly Pope Nicholas V, who led the Roman Catholic Church from 1397 to 1455. It was important for him to embellish the city of Rome to make it worthy of being known as the capital of the Christian world. At the behest of the Pope, the Aqua Vergine, a damaged aqueduct which had transported clean drinking water into Rome from eight miles away, was reconditioned starting in 1453. The historical Roman tradition of marking the arrival point of an aqueduct with an imposing celebratory fountain, also known as a mostra, was restored by Nicholas V. The present-day location of the Trevi Fountain was formerly occupied by a wall fountain commissioned by the Pope and constructed by the architect Leon Battista Alberti. The Trevi Fountain as well as the renowned baroque fountains located in the Piazza del Popolo and the Piazza Navona were eventually supplied with water from the altered aqueduct he had reconstructed.