Hydro-Statics & Garden Fountains: An Overview
When in equilibrium, liquid delivers force to its container or any other material it comes in contact with. There are 2 forms, hydrostatic load or external forces. When pressing against a level wall, the fluid applies equal force at different points on the wall. When an subject is entirely submerged in a liquid, vertical force is applied to the object at each point. We refer to this concept as Archimedes’ principle, which deals with the forces of buoyancy. Liquid acted on by hydrostatic force is then subject to hydrostatic pressure at the point of contact. Examples of these containers can be observed in the way a city disperses water, along with its fountains and artesian wells.
A Chronicle of Wall Fountains
Hundreds of classic Greek records were translated into Latin under the auspices of the scholarly Pope Nicholas V, who ruled the Roman Catholic Church from 1397 to 1455. He undertook the embellishment of Rome to make it into the model capital of the Christian world. Beginning in 1453, the ruined ancient Roman aqueduct known as the Aqua Vergine which had brought clean drinking water into the city from eight miles away, underwent reconstruction at the behest of the Pope. The ancient Roman custom of marking the entry point of an aqueduct with an imposing celebratory fountain, also known as a mostra, was restored by Nicholas V. The architect Leon Battista Alberti was directed by the Pope to put up a wall fountain where we now see the Trevi Fountain. The aqueduct he had refurbished included modifications and extensions which eventually allowed it to supply water to the Trevi Fountain as well as the famed baroque fountains in the Piazza del Popolo and the Piazza Navona.
Agrippa’s Magnificent Water-lifting Appliance
Unfortunately, Agrippa’s amazing design for lifting water was not mentioned a lot following 1588, when Andrea Bacci praised it widely. It may be that the Acqua Felice, the second of Rome’s earliest modern channels made the system outdated when it was linked to the Villa Medici in 1592. Though its success was passing, Camillo Agrippa’s design for lifting water was the wonder of its day, transcending anything crafted in Italy since the days of ancient Rome. It might violate the law of gravity to lift water to Renaissance gardens, feeding them in a way other late sixteenth century designs which include scenographic water displays, musical fountains and giochi d’acqua or water caprices, were not.
Bernini: The Master of Italy's Greatest Water Fountains
The Barcaccia, Bernini's first water fountain, is a striking chef d'oeuvre built at the bottom of the Trinita dei Monti in Piaza di Spagna. Roman residents and site seers who enjoy verbal exchanges as well as being the company of others still go to this spot. Today, the city streets surrounding Bernini's fountain are a trendy place where people go to gather, something which the artist would have been pleased to learn. Dating back to around 1630, Pope Urbano VIII mandated what was to be the very first water fountain of the artist's career.
The fountain’s central theme is based on an a massive ship slowly sinking into the Mediterranean Sea. Period writings dating back to the 16th century show that the fountain was constructed as a memorial to those who lost their lives in the great flooding of the Tevere. In 1665, France was graced by Bernini's one-and-only lengthy journey outside of Italy.
Where did Fountains Come From?
A water fountain is an architectural piece that pours water into a basin or jets it high into the air in order to provide drinking water, as well as for decorative purposes.
Pure functionality was the original role of fountains. Cities, towns and villages made use of nearby aqueducts or springs to provide them with potable water as well as water where they could bathe or wash. Used until the 19th century, in order for fountains to flow or shoot up into the air, their origin of water such as reservoirs or aqueducts, had to be higher than the water fountain in order to benefit from gravity. Fountains were not only used as a water source for drinking water, but also to adorn homes and celebrate the artist who created it. Bronze or stone masks of wildlife and heroes were commonly seen on Roman fountains. To depict the gardens of paradise, Muslim and Moorish garden planners of the Middle Ages introduced fountains to their designs. Fountains enjoyed a significant role in the Gardens of Versailles, all part of French King Louis XIV’s desire to exert his power over nature. To mark the entrance of the restored Roman aqueducts, the Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries commissioned the construction of baroque style fountains in the spot where the aqueducts arrived in the city of Rome
The end of the 19th century saw the increase in usage of indoor plumbing to provide drinking water, so urban fountains were relegated to strictly decorative elements. The creation of unique water effects and the recycling of water were two things made possible by swapping gravity with mechanical pumps.
Decorating city parks, honoring people or events and entertaining, are some of the functions of modern-day fountains.